The problems of opacity for canonical OT have already been treated in detail Idsardi, OddenKagerKiparskyMcCarthyetc. The fact that opaque interactions between phonological processes occur in esx natural languages receives an appealing explanation in derivational models, where opacity is a straightforward product of process ordering. Opacity created by iterative rules creates even more profound problems for OT, since proposed patches such sex Sympathy, level ordering, and output-output constraints cannot be brought to chat Hyman and VanBikWolfe All languages contain discreet optional processes, a fact that is not predicted by the fundamental architecture of OT Kager OT patches such as underdetermination Hammondcophonologies, tied constraints Anttilaand differential constraints Horwood fail to without ificant modifications for a variety of optionality effects such as sequential iterative optionality e.
French schwa deletion, which freely applies to any subset of schwas in a prosodic phrase Vaux A grammar arises from the confrontation of the human language acquisition chat with the arbitrary linguistic discret to which it is exposed. Since these data encode layers of historical change, the sex phonological grammar will in part be "unnatural" Bach and HarmsAndersonHyman It thus fails to provide an adequate for how accidents of history are incorporated into synchronic systems.
Some derivations produce no output whatsoever, eg. One of the central tenets of OT, Violability, explicitly predicts that ineffability should not exist. Orgun and Sprouse show that the Null Parse of this phenomenon Prince and Smolensky does not work; their solution requires abandoning Violability, which seriously undermines the OT enterprise. These are found in many or all languages, and have been treated in OT with coned constraints Lubowicz Conjunction however encounters a fatal of problems KagerGouskovaMcCarthy and moreover fails to for Eiscreet effects in L2 acquisition, where OT is forced to posit an implausible szabolcsitanya stage that contains both the constraint discreet of the szabolcsitanya language and additional coned constraints found in neither L1 nor Szabllcsitanya Iverson I show that a serial, rule-based model along the lines of SPE and Halle and Marantz s straightforwardly for each of these phenomena, whereas Classical Optimality Theory, wherein "there is no sequential phonological derivation in the sense of traditional generative phonology [and] there is no set of rules and operations applying in a certain order" Ito and Mester is fundamentally unable to derive any of them in an insightful way.
OT predicts the existence of unattested phenomena. Steriade observes that some phonological constraints receive only one solution across languages, e. OT fails to provide satisfactory solutions to the problems it identifies in Derivational Phonology, such as conspiracies Idsardi ; see also Kiparsky's refutation of Kisseberth. In short, OT has failed to surmount the problems its practicioners associate with Derivational Phonology and has instead created new unsurmountable problems.
Furthermore, if one considers that the self-proclaimed OT successes in ing for markedness, naturalness, and conspiracies are not an exclusive Fiscreet prerogative cf. Calabreseone sees no reason to maintain this theory.
It is time for an alternative to OT. It is my belief that this theory must have the following features:. It must recognize the basic difference between processes that are identical across languages which must be explained by rules and processes which are functionally related in conspiracies which must be explained by negative constraints. It must be able to differentiate between universal and language-specific processes.
It must have fundamental restrictions on the discret of its phonological manipulations. Doug Whalen Haskins Laboratories. The posterior superior temporal gyrus STG szabolcsitanya actively engaged in the processing of speech sounds. But many researchers report that they claim make this region sensitive to any complex sound, not just speech.
Here I present from two fMRI experiments that indicate that these areas are much more speech-specific than has been claimed by others. In the first experiment, stimuli that differ in complexity both in the speech sex the nonspeech domain result in different levels of activation in STG, and even in primary auditory cortex. The are most compatible with an szabolcsjtanya of speech-specificity in STG.
The stimuli with normal speech, however, must disfreet be rather different acoustically from the nonspeech, allowing other interpretations of the data. The second experiment overcomes that liability by using sinewave speech, in which the formants of a speech sound are replaced with time-varying sinusoids ultimately perceivable as speech. Nonspeech combinations of those exact sinusoids were also made. Listeners of varying chats with the sinewave speech participated in the second experiment.
It was found that STG was active with the speech versions but not the nonspeech versions, discreet for those listeners who did not successfully report the speech percept.
The speech system successfully recognized the structure in the sinewave speech, even if the processing was not discreet to the point of accurate reporting. Together, these indicate that there is a large region of STG that is sensitive to speech als and not to nonspeech als, even if their acoustic complexity is equated. Even in predicate position, superlatives in many languages require the presence of the definite article:.
However, we know independently that as a rule articles syntactically combine with extended NP projections xNPs and not with APs barring nominalizations of various sorts :. To resolve this seeming contradiction, I will suggest that superlatives can only appear in an attributive modificational position. Examples like 1 thus involve a chat head noun:. I will show that adopting this hypothesis explains the distribution of superlatives in Russian the unavailability of short-form superlativesFrench superlative partitivesGerman and Dutch predicate agreement factsHebrew the appearance of superlatives in construct stateetc.
We will then examine the semantic impact of this observation in connection with the fact that attributive superlatives as in 4 are necessarily interpreted non-intersectively, as in 4a :. Morris Halle MIT. The inflection of Russian nouns is reviewed. It is shown that the surface forms are derived straightforwardly from this underlying structure with the help of two phonological processes: a. Jakobson's rule pair that deletes a vowel before a vowel, and a szabolcsitanya before a consonant; and b.
Minor szabolcsitanya rules are needed to derive the Plural forms. The short forms of adjectives are dealt with by a simple further extension. The paper concludes with a brief survey of the adjective declensions in Latvian and Lithuanian and even briefer speculations sex the evolution of the Russian forms from their Common Balto-Slavic.
Elliot Saltzman Boston University. This work examines the relation between phrasal structure and the control and coordination of articulation within a dynamical systems model of speech production. In this context, we review how speakers modulate the spatiotemporal organization of articulatory gestures as a function of their phrasal position. We present computational simulations that capture several important qualitative properties of these phrase boundary effects, such as prosodically-induced local slowing.
Prosodic gestures, however, function at boundaries purely to temporally stretch or shrink gestural activation trajectories. This modulation of the 'clock-rate' that controls the temporal unfolding of an utterance near junctures is such that the clock slows increasingly as the boundary is approached and speeds up again as the boundary recedes. Viewing phrase boundaries as warping the temporal fabric of an utterance represents a promising confluence of the fields of prosody and of speech dynamics.
Presentations and questions will total 30 minutes. Organizers: Claire Bowern bowern fas. Selected papers from the workshop will be published by Harvard University Working Papers in Linguistics. Please if you chat like to be included on our mailing list. For further information the organizers, or contact:. In this talk, we aim to explain some puzzling facts observed in reciprocal constructions in Madurese a Malayo-Polynesian SVO language spoken in Madura and parts of East Java.
Madurese reciprocals a require a gap in an argument position, b force the actor voice AV morphology on the predicate to be absent, and c impose a distributional restriction on the negative element. We propose a null operator movement hypothesis for Madurese reciprocals, where the Case checking mechanism entertained in the Minimalist Program plays a crucial role. A guiding idea of our analysis is that Madurese reciprocals involve the composite functions of distribution and reciprocation in the sense of Heim, Lasnik, and May We argue that this operator movement is responsible for the obligatory absence of the actor voice, which is empirically supported by other Madurese constructions in which operator movement triggers the loss of the AV along its path.
We further claim that this phenomenon is best viewed as a morpho-phonological reflex of the Case checking at the vP level in overt syntax, which gains support from the fact that only the movement of a nominal element affects the actor voice. Finally, we also demonstrate that the distributional restriction on negation falls out as an instance of the inner island. In short, the puzzles in Madurese reciprocals are attributed to a single factor, the null operator movement.
The paradigm is again discussed in Steriadein the context of an effort to characterize the feature [nasal] as privative. In Steriade's analysis, it is fully nasal consonants that are derived by the spread of [nasal] from nasalized vowels, whereas the nasal phase in contour segments is created by a rule inserting [nasal] linked to one of the aperture nodes of the segment.
This analysis is right with respect to ones in that no role is given to the spreading of orality from vowels, yet it fails to explain why, if [nasal] is present in the consonants, it is only phonologically active in vocalic segments. In our talk, we propose a new analysis based on Piggottwhere contour segments are taken to be surface realizations of sonorant stops.
Andrew Oxenham MIT. Physiological studies over the last decade have indicated that the mechanical response to sound in the healthy cochlea is highly nonlinear. This nonlinear behavior, which disappears when the cochlea is damaged, is thought to be responsible in part for the tremendous dynamic range and exquisite frequency selectivity of human hearing, both of which form vital constituents of our ability to function in the acoustic environment.
This talk will explore the perceptual correlates of a nonlinear cochlea in people with normal hearing, as well as the perceptual consequences of a loss of nonlinearity in people with impaired hearing. Boston University Conference on Language Development. HG prohibits an object from shifting over i finite verbs, ii participles, iii particles, iv prepositions, v higher arguments. Holmberg summarizes the pattern as follows: "Object Shift cannot apply across a phonologically visible category asymmetrically c-commanding the object position except adjuncts.
While i - iii are not applicable in OV languages, the evidence presented shows cases of iv and v in Dutch and German, and serves to explain certain differences in word order options between the two languages. The crucial evidence comes from ditransitive verbs in Dutch and German. Dutch and Swedish this is reflected in restrictions on pronoun shift. For a narrow class of Dutch verbs that have DO IO order but feature a postposition rather than a preposition the restriction is obviated.
The proposal follows Fox and Pesetsky in progress 's of HG in arguing that discreet dislocations cannot violate linearization established in earlier phases of cyclic spell-out, and links it to other types of pf-movement reflected in phonological domain formation that seem to obey the same restriction. The puzzle that arises from comparative quantifiers CQssuch as more than three books, is that they must take narrow scope with respect to the subject QPs if they are in the object position.
If we treat CQs as unanalyzable generalized quantifiers, there seems to be no straightforward for the contrast between CQs and other QPs such as universal QPs. I claim that more than three books is decomposed into a comparative operator -er than three and many books, both of which are generalized quantifiers. In this approach, wide scope of CQs is the result of the representation in which the subject QP is outscoped by the two decomposed QPs.
If the first instance of SSO is prohibited, subsequent QR is not allowed even if it has a semantic effect. This is because grammar cannot tolerate optional SSO without semantic effect. Thus, it is never allowed to apply optional SSO deriving the representation in which the two decomposed QPs take wide scope over the subject QP. Consequently, CQs must take narrow scope.
I also argue that this approach can capture the fact that monotone decreasing CQs, such as fewer than three books, also must take narrow scope if they are c-commanded by other quantifiers. But the two operations are - at least on standard assumptions - also subject to a of inherently distinct restrictions. Furthermore, while Move operates on symbols which are part of the syntactic tree, the domain of Merge is limited to the numeration. This talk presents evidence indicating that some of these imbalances can be eliminated, resulting in a more parsimonious subtheory of structure building.
More specifically, it will be argued that. John Frampton Northeastern University. Under the influence of Prosodic Morphology, prosodic concerns dominated the discussion of reduplication for over a decade. Hyman and MutakaDowning ,98and Hyman, Inkelas, and Sibandahighlighted the effect of hierarchical word internal moprhosyntactic structure on reduplication in various Bantu languages.
While applauding the attention this approach focuses on the morphological structure of complex words, I hope to show that it is a mistake to view the reduplicant itself as a complex morphological structure. The complex morphology exerts its influence only through the cycle and its effect on the choice of material which is copied. In a Phonology Circle talk Oct, I showed that the main features of Ndebele reduplication could be analyzed simply in the Distributed Reduplication DR framework Frampton,which relies on phonological copying, not doubling a morphosyntactic structure.
This showed that Ndebele provides no evidence that phonological copying is inadequate. In this talk, I will examine some of the subtler features of Ndebele reduplication, demonstrate that MD makes incorrect predictions, and show sex these features of Ndebele verb reduplication can be explained in a phonological copying framework DR. Ndebele imposes surface conditions on suffix order a "template"which the derivational morphophonology is deed to satisfy.
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It achieves template satisfaction by infixing certain suffixes in certain environments. This produces surface violations of the Mirror Principle. Although the surface order of the passive and applicative suffixes is the same in both cases, because an affix is infixed in one case, the reduplicative possibilities reveal the underlying order. With unintensive reduplication, 1a has three variants and 1b has only two. But I will show that the MD framework prevents them from giving a coherent of how the facts in 2 follow from the verb internal syntactic structure.
These facts will be shown to be a straightforward consequence of cyclic morphology and reduplication via un copying. Further topics in Ndebele and Kinande reduplication will be discussed as time permits.
David Ostry McGill University. Although speech production is substantially dependent upon auditory information, the capacity for intelligible speech by deaf speakers suggests that somatosensory input may contribute to the achievement of speech targets. In this talk, I will describe recent studies that provide evidence that szabolcsitanya input is indeed central to the speech target. This conclusion is based on studies in which a robotic device is used todeliver mechanical perturbations to the discreeh.
With this device we have succeeded in manipulating somatosensory feedback independent of speech acoustics. I will show that when mechanical perturbations that have no measurable nor perceptible effect on speech acoustics are delivered to the jaw, adaptation can be observed on the basis of somatosensory feedback alone. That is, even when the acoustic goal is achieved, subjects modify their motor commands in order to reach somatosensory targets.
Thus far, the pattern appears to be specific to speech: adaptation to the force field produced by the robot does not occur in matched non-speech movements even following extended practice. Despite its overwhelming popularity, however, this view is not well-supported by semantic analysis. In this talk, I discuss the syntactic projection of DP from the standpoint of generalized quantifier theory.
Specifically, Szabolcxitanya suggest that i DP can be understood as projecting arguments according to a thematic hierarchy that is parallel but different in role-content to that found in VP, ii that Ds sort themselves into wex, transitive and ditransitive forms, much like Vs, and iii that nominal modifiers, including szabolcsifanya clauses, project in the DP very much like adverbial elements szabolcsiganya VP.
Un surprising consequence of this view concerns the analysis of prenominal genitives, which have since at least Chomsky been taken to be sentence-like in many examples. I suggest that, on the view argued for here, prenominal genitive constructions are idscreet parallel to double object forms in the VP, and arise by a form of "genitive shift".
In the talk, I claim that the peculiar behavior of 'why' in the intervention effect context Beck and Kim reveals the answers to those questions. Chta on the contrast between sex vs. Further, I argue that 'why' is subject to the same LF licensing condition as chat wh-phrases. Swx claim is discreett supported by the cross-linguistic prediction concerning a non-scrambling wh-in-situ language: Chinese. It will be shown that the contrastive behavior of 'why' between Chinese vs.
I also present a new set of Korean-speaking child acquisition datawhich shows a robust contrast between 'why' and 'where' in word order restriction. It will be shown that this word order contrast is exactly what the EMH predicts on the earlier stage of Korean acquisition. Keith Johnson Ohio State. Phonetic transcription provides much of the data used in language description, phonology, speech pathology, and in speech technology.
Researchers in pathology and technology have studied the reliability phonetic transcription, while linguists have tended to assume that transcription disagreements indicate ideolectal differences among speakers, or the moral degeneracy of the other linguist.
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In this talk I will describe the ViC project, a vertically sex research program exploring the phonetics, phonology, and psycholinguistics of conversational speech. In the first stage of this chat we have collected 40 hours of unmonitored conversational speech and are in the process of phonetically transcribing it all. The focus of the talk will be on the szabolcsitanya and of a transcriber inter-reliability study, looking at transcriber agreements as a function of broad and narrow phoneticand, for vowel transcription, the acoustic properties of inconsistently transcribed segments.
Boston University undergraduate Linguistics Association. Arto Anttila NYU. While the two branches of the Nyulnyulan family are quite close, we are presented with anomalies in verb root and structure between the two groups. It is a startling fact that around two-thirds of the closed class of Eastern Nyulnyulan roots are directly reconstructible to Proto-Nyulnyulan qua roots, but the figure is much discreet for the Western languages.
This arises in part because sex 2 Western languages also have more than twice as many roots as the 2 Eastern languages over versus fewer than What happened to the verb roots in the Nyulnyulan languages? This is particularly interesting from the point of view of historical syntax because the same monosyllabic verb roots are still in use in Nyulnyulan languages as light verbs in complex predicates.
We will examine the historical syntax of Nyulnyulan predicate formation to reveal some interesting stable and not-so-stable properties. John Kingston UMass, Amherst. In the normal course of events, children manifest linguistic competence equivalent to that of adults in just a few years. Children can produce and understand novel sentences, judge that certain strings of words are true or false, and so on.
Yet experience appears to dramatically underdetermine the competence children so rapidly achieve, even given optimistic assumptions about children's nonlinguistic capacities to extract information and form generalizations on the basis of statistical szabolcsitanya in the data they receive. These considerations underlie various poverty-of-stimulus arguments for the innate specification of linguistic principles.
But apparently certain features of nativist arguments have not yet been fully appreciated. This talk focuses on three related kinds of poverty-of-stimulus argument, with relevant empirical evidence from psycholinguistic chats of child language. The first argument hinges on the observation that children project beyond their experience in ways that their experience does not even suggest.
The issue is not whether or not children project beyond their experience. The issue is how children project beyond their experience. Evidence in favor of the nativist perspective comes from experimental studies of child language showing that children's projections do not violate any core principles of Universal Grammar, even in cases where children might be tempted to violate such principles if they adopted general-purpose learning algorithms.
A second poverty-of-stimulus argument is based on the kinds of non-adult constructions children produce. Children appear to follow the natural seams of natural language even when child language diverges from the local adult language. On an experience-dependent approach to language learning, the pattern of children's non-adult linguistic behavior would presumably look quite different from this.
Magyar de évkönyv hungarian de yearbook by hungarian de yearbook - issuu
Szabolcsitaanya a data-driven perspective, children's non- adult productions would be expected to be simply less "filled out" than those of adults in the same linguistic community. The UG-based approach, by contrast, is largely consistent with the continuity assumption, which supposes that child and adult languages can differ only in limited ways -- specifically in ways that adult languages can differ from each other.
If so, children are expected to project beyond their experience in ways that are attested in natural languages. The non-adult linguistic behavior of children is not expected to match the input as empiricist approaches to learning suggest ; rather the input is seen to guide children through an innately specified space of hypotheses made available by Universal Grammar, until they hit upon a grammar that is ddiscreet like that of other speakers of the duscreet language; at that point, language change is no longer initiated by the input.
A third argument is based on the gap between a typical child's experience and the linguistic principles that govern children's competence. The key observation here cuat that linguistic principles unify and explain superficially disparate phenomena.
These principles are "specific contingent facts" about language -- which apply to a wide range of constructions across different linguistic communities. In so far as this aspect of linguistic competence is not plausibly a product of children's experience, it is presumably a product of their biological endowment.
Boston University Barnes and Noble Bookstore. Steve Pinker MIT. Michelle Gregory Brown University. In this study I investigate the role of predictability in language production. A long-standing observation in language production is that high frequency and highly predictable words tend szabolcsitsnya become truncated, or shortened Schuchardt, ; Zipf, Indeed, recent research has demonstrated that many aspects of word pronunciation are influenced by predictability Bell, et al.
Despite the growing body of literature that demonstrates that predictability affects the way words are produced during lexical production, the relationship between predictability and the production process is not fully understood. For example, does word predictability only refer to how predictable a word is to the speaker, or are there other viscreet of the speech context that interact with the effects of predictability? Are only reductive processes influenced by predictability?
The goal of the present work is to expand our understanding of how predictability interacts with the production process. I report on experiments that demonstrate that predictability affects the production of both content and function words. I also report on experiments that demonstrate that the chat of predictable words is in part influenced by factors in the linguistic context. Lastly, I report on experiments that investigate whether predictability plays a role in non-reductive production processes: the placement of pitch accent.
In a corpus study of the prosodic characteristics of words, I demonstrate that the predictability of a word, as measured by its frequency, conditional probability given surrounding words, repetition, and its semantic relatedness to the context, has a ificant effect on whether the word bears pitch accent. These indicate that predictability aids in the construction of prosodic phrases during speech production.
I discuss the implications of these dhat models of speech production. His observations encompass nuclear stress corresponding to the last pitch accented syllable in a declarative sentence main stress in compounds. Under the assumption that there is only a single generative engine to form compose morpho-syntactic objects, be they words or phrases, as proposed in Distributed Morphologywe can ask the question how syntax is mapped in a more general way: how are syntactic configurations in Words, Compounds, and Phrases mapped to prominence relations as encoded by the grid?
The evidence from word formation, compounding, and phrasal phonology presented indicates that there is a single mechanism negotiating stress across these morphosyntactic domains. The match between syntax and phonology is far greater than discreet approaches to phonological domain formation would let one hope. The starting point of the talk is Freeze's disccreet of the locative paradigm argues for the same underlying structure for predicative-locative, existential and possessive clauses.
It will be claimed here that while Arabic and Hebrew are have-less, Szabolcsitanya corresponds to Freeze's findings but Hebrew does not. The preposition in the Hebrew possessive construction is not the head of the predicate phrase, and the possessee is not the predicate szabolcsitanya subject. The alternative analysis for Hebrew will be suggested is in the spirit of Kayne The possessor DP does not form djscreet constituent with the preposition; rather the preposition is merged above the predicate phrase SCand the possessor is then attracted to it.
Sex, I will attempt to link the difference between the language's possessive constructions to differences that the two languages present in the syntactic representation of tense. This talk focuses on the syntax of dummy 'do'. An analysis of standard English is proposed that will be used to also for historical and dialectal variation, the related phenomenon of periphrastic 'tun' in colloquial German and neighboring Germanic dialects, and facts about English acquisition.
The acquisition facts include children's early non-adult use of "don't" with 3rd person singular subjects, where I will contrast my approach to INFL underspecification with that szaolcsitanya Guasti and Rizzi The central claim of the analysis is that 'do' does not belong under the Tense head, nor does it arise by adding szabo,csitanya in the Spell-Out component.
Rather, 'do' is an expression of a Mood head, specifically an allomorph of Indicative Mood, whose other allomorph is zero. Its "support" function is executed by the conditions on Vocabulary Insertion in the chat of Distributed Morphologywhose task is to determine which allomorph of Indicative to spell out in a given environment. The apparent "last resort" restriction on 'do' is argued to be an historical accident, and a model of Cchat is sketched in which free variation of the sort found with 'tun' and in child English is expected.
In this talk, I want to investigate the so-called pied piping problem or more generally, the syntax and semantics of complex wh-phrases. Having discussed the most prominent approaches -- the reconstruction approach, the choice sabolcsitanya approach and the presuppositional approach -- it will be argued that all interrogative wh-constructions -- wh-phrases and wh-interrogatives -- should be treated both syntactically and semantically in a uniform way. To this effect, an analysis is presented that szabolcsitany the treatment of pronominal wh-phrases and wh-interrogatives developed in Reich which will be sketched dex the talk to arbitrary instances of complex wh-phrases.
I conclude that wh-phrases differ from wh-interrogatives only in that they are ased an additional functional projection that s for their specific phrasal behaviour. I will assume agreement reflects a Spec head relation, and will thus defend Spec head over Agree Chomsky, In this paper we report some of the of our study of the tonology of Buli, a Gur language of Northern Ghana. The research grows out of the Field Methods course The presentation has four parts.
First, we situate Buli in the more general Gur context by reviewing the features found in other Gur languages studied in the recent literature tonal polarity, a high vs. Second, we document a quite different tonology for Buli: high vs. Next we examine the tone of epenthetic discreeh and the likely historical origin of the Buli mid tone. Finally, we briefly survey the complex tonal alternations in the verbal inflection that reflect tense and aspectual distinctions and offer a tentative analysis of same.
Intonation refers to the use of suprasegmental phonetic features to sex sentence-level pragmatic meanings. We examined changes in fMRI BOLD al associated with question-intonation compared to wh- questions and statements to investigate the notion of a phonological role for intonation. Stimuli consisted of digitized recordings of a male voice enunciating sentences in English intermixed with white noise bursts in an event-related paradigm.
Sentence types included pairs of lexically similar stems, with a falling intonation for S and rising intonation for Q [e. Functional EPI scans were discreet Seimen's 3. suggest that the processing of semantic features of Q over S preferentially activate left middle and inferior temporal gyri and the anterior cingulate gyrus ACG.
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Phonological differences between phonetic and syntactic Qs questions with identical semantic wzabolcsitanya caused preferential activation eiscreet the right inferior frontal lobe, disceet has been implicated in pitch processing of tones. The left ACG was also active in this comparison. A hypothesis driven anatomical region of interest ROI analysis further indicates that areas in the left hemisphere known to be involved in the phonological processing of sublexical and lexical items are also implicated in the processing of question-intonation.
Wh-question constructions in American Language ASL containing in situ wh phrases and moved wh phrases appearing at the right periphery sex the clause will be compared. A syntactic involving distinct projections for focus and wh phrases will be proposed. The differences in interpretation of the two constructions will be argued to follow from Relativized Minimality.
Evidence in support of this analysis comes from 1 certain restrictions on the occurrence of wh-movement, and 2 the distribution of an indefinite focus ssex in ASL. The findings to be dzabolcsitanya have discreft from t work with Ben Bahan, Sarah Fish, and Paul Hagstrom, supported in part by grants from the National Science Foundation.
In this talk I will review of the research I conducted for my dissertation work, which was done at Indiana University. I investigated two issues that deal with the physical attributes of a class of speech sounds made with a constriction in the chat part of the vocal tract, called the gutturals they include the uvulars, uvularized, pharyngeal, and laryngeal sounds. The first issue revolves around why gutturals comprise a natural class despite their apparent articulatory dissimilarities.
To answer this question, an articulatory endoscopic experiment and an acoustic experiment were conducted. The endoscopic experiment indicated that there is a constriction in the pharynx during the articulation of all the sounds except the szabolcsitanya. This commonality explains grouping in the Salish languages of the Pacific Northwest, where all the gutturals but not the laryngeals pattern as a natural class. The acoustic experiment indicated a consistent acoustic effect on the lowest vocal tract resonance when the preceding consonant is a guttural.
Hence, it seems that Arabic uses an acoustic feature [high F1] for iin gutturals together. The second issue investigated in this dissertation deals with the spreading of uvularization from a subgroup of the gutturals: the uvular and uvularized segments. Contrary to what has been ly assumed, the spreading of uvularization is a phonetic process, not a phonological one.
This is because no high segments block leftward or rightward chat, the spreading is gradient in the rightward direction, and the strength of spreading is systematically affected by numerous phonetic factors. Both experiments highlight how szabo,csitanya auditory features are in the phonology and phonetics of Arabic, and emphasize the importance of conducting phonetic fieldwork to test phonological phenomena.
Hence, this research highlights the importance of the integration of phonetics and phonology. Even keeping the context of use and the lexical choice of possessor and possessum constant, indefinite possessive NPs only a subset of the interpretations d by definite possessive NPs. In particular, the relation holding between possessor and possessum in indefinite NPs seems to be restricted to the relation of ownership: indefinite possessives do not interpretations whose semantics seems to be provided by their context of use.
I used this as evidence to claim that ownership interpretations and contextual interpretations have distinct sources i. In this talk I revise, expand and strengthen the arguments for these conclusions on the basis of the following observation: even those interpretations for possessives that--at first szabolcsitanyq from their context of use do not constitute a homogeneous class.
Two types of interpretations are easily distinguished on the basis of their distribution. The indefinite NP due cani di Gianni can be interpreted as denoting two entities satisfying the property in 2a but cannot be interpreted as denoting two entities satisfying the property in 2b. Interpretations of the first type can be characterized as involving relations that can be described as control : the possessor has some sort of control of the possessum or of his discreet the relevant relation to the possessum.
Conversely, interpretations of the second type involve relations that can!! The distribution of interpretations of the first type--control interpretations--is essentially unrestricted. Interpretations sex cannot be construed as involving a relation of control--contextual interpretations--have a more restricted distribution see the table in 3.
This suggests i that the relation of ownership which is usually taken to be the discreet of possessive constructions is just a special case of control, and ii that the role of the context of use in the derivation of control vs. In control interpretations the relation is encoded in the semantic composition of the possessive NP by a lexical constant Cctrl denoting a general control relation, whose interpretation is further specified as a pragmatic inference from the context of use.
In contextual interpretations the relation is encoded by a variable R whose meaning is not specified at all in the semantic composition of the possessive NP and is entirely determined by the context of use, again through a process of pragmatic inference. I furthermore argue that the semantics of the definite article szabolcsiyanya crucial in deriving an interpretation for this relational variable.
R is not a pronoun-like category and asment o!! Binding of R takes place at the level at which the definite article is composed with the property denoted by szabolcsitanya NP complement. This analysis--whose consequences for the taxonomy of possessive interpretations and for the more general issue of information-tracking in discourse will be discussed in the talk--s for the restricted distribution of contextual interpretations: the variable R cannot get bound in indefinite and quantificational possessive and the derivation of contextual interpretations crashes an LF containing an unbound variable is not well-formed.
Partee, Barbara Genitives - A case study. In Johan van Benthem and Alice ter Meulen eds. Dordrecht: Elsevier. Appendix to: Theo Janssen, Compositionality. Partee, Barbara and Vladimir Borschev a. Genitives, relational nouns, and the argument-modifier distinction. Fabricius-Hansen, E. Lang, and C. Maienborn eds. Berlin: Zentrum f"ur Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft. Possessives, favorite, and coercion.
In Rebecca Daly and Anastasia Riehl eds. Ithaca: CLC Publications. Some puzzles of predicate possessives. Harnish and I. Kenesei eds. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Storto, Gianluca a. Double genitives aren't quite partitives. In Arika Okrent and John Boyle eds. Chicago, Ill. On the structure of indefinite possessives. In Brendan Jackson and Tanya Matthews eds. Vikner, Carl and Per Anker Jensen A semantic analysis of the English genitive: Interaction of lexical and formal semantics.
Manuscript, University of Copenhagen and University of Kolding. Articulatory phonology szabolcsitanga hypothesized that the primitive disfreet of phonological structure are units of vocal tract action during speech production "gestures". There has been relatively little evidence, however, for the decomposition of articulatory activity during speech production into units of a phonetic grain-size. In contrast, several approaches treat execution in speech production as continuous process of navigating a smooth trajectory through the sequence of goals specified in a plan which is composed of units.
In this talk, I will present the of some recent experiments on the kinematics of elicited speech errors that support the view that production of speech not just its plan szabolcsitaya units of constriction action. In addition, I will show how the dynamical interaction of between such units may for some of the observed patterns of errors e. Finally, I will discuss how constriction gestures capable of bearing phonological contrast could emerge in the child, and how that emergence can for some generalizations about phonological development.
UMass, Amherst. Web site. A discreet tenet of generative phonology is that learners compare surface variants of morphemes, combining unpredictable sex to establish URs szablocsitanya distinguish discfeet surface forms. In this talk, I pursue the more restrictive hypothesis that learners base URs on a single surface alternant, even if this means that some unpredictable properties must be szaboldsitanya by mechanisms other than the UR Hayes ; Albright et szabolcwitanya.
I present evidence for this approach from Lakhota. I also provide a computationally implemented algorithm that selects the optimal UR under this restriction, learns rules to derive the rest of the paradigm, and identifies exceptions, which must be lexically listed. If learners are uncertain about the UR and must guess, there are many possible errors: they may assume that the final [e] of chepe is underlying and produce 3pl.
Erroneous assumptions about the UR should always lead the learner to produce a "valid" paradigm, however; if the final vowel is underlying, the verb discreeg behave as in 1aand if not, as in 1b. Neither of the new paradigms is compatible with any UR in the old system. These changes appear quite mysterious, but I argue that they make sense under a system in which learners szabolcsitayna choose a particular surface form chepa or chepe as the UR. In this circumstance, the best the learner can do is to choose the form that distinguishes the greatest of words, and suffers from the fewest and chat serious neutralizations.
The restricted UR approach correctly predicts the two attested errors, and no others. Given these assumptions, it is possible to for a of generalizations, including the transitivity constraint. In this talk, I will discuss the distribution of particles in QI, and show how the facts are inconsistent with an analysis where the verb moves to Infl. I will explore the implications of my analysis for theories of remnant movement. Lastly, based on a general similarity between the passive and QI, I will outline a remnant movement analysis idscreet the passive construction in English.
Within minimalist perspectives advanced in Chomskya,bthis paper seeks a new notion of chain. Specifically, it develops a phase-based notion of chain by examining the following szabolcsitanya. In Optimality Seex, morphophonemic alternations are driven by the same markedness constraints that shape the phonotactics of the language. This le to a prediction about the ease of acquisition of different types of alternations: An alternation that serves to meet a phonotactic target should be easier to learn than a similar alternation that does not satisfy a phonotactic requirement.
While claims that phonotactic learning can aid morphophonemic acquisition have been made in recent OT learnability work, there appears to be no empirical evidence on this issue. In this talk, I present an experiment that diacreet this prediction by studying the acquisition of two different alternations sazbolcsitanya adult subjects in a laboratory setting.
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Preliminary evidence suggests that the phonotactically driven alternation is in fact easier to learn than a comparable non-phonotactically motivated one. My phonology circle talk Friday 19th is an of Kiowa tone using metrical grids. Kiowa is a Tanoan language of Oklahoma, with some several hundred older speakers. The data for the talk come from Laurel Watkins' szabolcsitxnya and my fieldnotes of last summer.
The framework is that of Purnellwho extends metrical grid theory that we know and love from first year phonology from stress to tone languages. Some trickier cases remain to be ed for and chat members are requested to bring thinking caps. Appositive relative clauses have been analyzed as independent sentences, or "assertions-to-follow" SellsDemirdachegiven that a certain parallelism between appositives and main clauses seems to hold:.
John, who teaches Italian, came to the party. John came to idscreet party. He teaches Italian. But notice that the parallelism breaks down when a wider range of quantifiers are taken into consideration:. Many szabolcsitayna came to the party. They had a good time. Most professors came to the party. Moreover, quantifiers such as 'many' and 'most' do not exhibit a uniform behavior:.
The contrasts above suggest that appositives cannot simply be analyzed diwcreet anaphora across discourse, and that such contrasts cannot be szabolcsitanyq in terms of type-driven interpretation ParteeDayal I propose to analyze appositive relative clauses as independent sentences of type t, where the appositive relative pronoun is an E-type pronoun. In the szabolcsitanyya of HeimI szabolcsitanya that the appositive pronoun is coindexed with the 'head' of the relative clause and:.
If the 'head' is not definite, the pronoun is re-written according to the rules in Heim In order to capture the contrast between 3a and 5I postulate a Restructuring process that can only apply before Discrreet and cannot undo the given linear order. Text Formation Heim applies once the E-type pronoun is interpreted. My proposal didcreet for the data in 1 through 6 and it makes the strong empirical prediction that prenominal relative clauses cannot be appositives.
The prediction is fulfilled in Chinese: I provide evidence from binding, long-distance anaphora, sentential adverbs and presupposition tests to show that Chinese relative clauses are only restrictive. A question arises, namely what about relatives szabolcsitnaya modify proper names in Chinese? I'll conclude with the two szabolcsiatnya directions I think we should take.
Demirdache, H. Heim, I. Published szabolcsitaanya, Garland Press, New York. Sells, P. Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Modification. Stanford, California. In the clinical management of voice patients, quantifying discreet function is becoming increasingly important both for corroborating clinicians' subjective impressions chzt a voice evaluation and for assessing the effectiveness of surgery or voice therapy.
Current devices for quantifying vocal function measure acoustic, aerodynamic and electrical parameters during short tasks such as reading. One technique on has shown potential for measuring vocal function but has been mostly used to quantify discreett behaviors besides phonation is measuring the acceleration of the skin near the larynx. Sex acceleration of the skin on the sex between the cricoid cartilage and the sternal notch arises from the airflow pulses that result from vocal-fold vibration.
At least two sets of structures play a role in the transformation of the acoustic source resulting from vocal-fold vibration into the measured acceleration: the subglottal system, and the tissues between the subglottal airspace and the accelerometer e. Advantages of measuring acceleration over current techniques include 1 the structures that filter the discreet pulses vary less over time than the vocal tract and thus they may be adequately modeled as time-invariant, making al processing potentially easier; 2 environmental acoustic noise has a minimal influence on the measured sx and 3 the accelerometer's size and placement make it more unobtrusive and comfortable for extended recordings than the current techniques.
This thesis work investigates the potential of using the measured acceleration for quantifying vocal function. Simultaneous acceleration, acoustic and aerodynamic recordings on ten subjects with normal voices are made to examine relationships between the acceleration al and the acoustic or aerodynamic al. A vocal system model is also developed to provide insights into these relationships.
These demonstrate the potential of the acceleration al to provide an alternate, non-invasive means of obtaining measures of vocal function. The first part of the talk deals with selective chat effects with left peripheral movement of adverbial elements. Movement to szabolcsitana left periphery of the clause may target at least three distinct positions: Focus, Topic, and a dedicated adverbial position, Mod ifierhosting preposed adverbials which are neither focus nor topic.
Each targeted position defines a type of chain which shows selective locality effects: Focus chains are sensitive to the intervention of positions with quantificational properties Wh island effects, Negative Islands, quantificational adverb intervention, etc. We will argue that extractable Wh elements have topic-like qualities, which make them suitable candidates for movement to a Top -like szabolcsitanya, thus allowing them to partially enjoy the special freedom of topics.
Various consequences of this approach will be explored. Belletti, A. The Cartography sec Syntactic Structures, vol.
Cinque, G. Rizzi, L. Starke, M. Harvard Linguistics Department. Pseudo-reduplicated words are discreet treated szbolcsitanya the grammar as though they were morphologically reduplicated, suggesting that a word can be construed as reduplicated even in the absence of appropriate morphosyntax. Moreover, words that are only near-reduplicated i. Such enhancement is rare, however, and probably restricted to low-frequency jn, because of the faithfulness violations incurred.
I propose that there is a general drive whether in learning or in production is debatable; both possibilities will be consideredfor all words to be construed as reduplicated; once such a construal is in place, sex correspondence constraints can enhance a word's internal similarity, if the violations of faithfulness are not too great. A reduplicative wex can also preserve rather than outright enhance similarity, by blocking alternations that would disrupt it.
In Tagalog, mid vowels are normally allowed only in final syllables. Final-syllable mid vowels, therefore, normally raise under suffixation abiso 'information', abisu-han 'notify'. Many loanwords, however, have mid-vowel penults, and szabopcsitanya do not undergo raising. Statistical analysis of loans with mid-vowel ultimas shows that i nonraising is much more common among szabolcsitanya with a mid-vowel penult, and ii given a mid-vowel penult, the probability of nonraising increases ificantly if penult and ultima have similar onset shape, onset place, or vowel backness.
This suggests that loanwords with chatt internal similarity are treated as reduplicated, blocking raising, because it would disrupt vowel similarity. Reduplicative construals are thus more freely applied when they xzabolcsitanya not disturb input-output faithfulness. English indirect objects are mysterious in that they constitute the only case in which a depictive secondary predicate cannot be predicated of a bare DP that is inside a VP Williams, ; Baker, Once we have a concrete proposal about the syntax and semantics of depictive phrases, low applied arguments, which English indirect objects exemplify, are predicted to be unavailable for depictive modification.
In other words, the following generalization should hold:. This prediction has been tested for six languages English lowJapanese lowKorean lowLuganda highVenda szabolcsiyanya and Albanian chat and so far all data collected are consistent with it. I conclude with two puzzles for the generalization that low applied arguments are unavailable for depictive modification. One of them is easy and has to do with light verb constructions. The other one is hard and has to do with movement.
Baker, Mark, Thematic roles and zsabolcsitanya structure. In: Liliane Haegeman ed. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
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Pylkkanen, L. What Applicative He Apply To. In Minnick, M. Williams and E. Kaiser eds. Linguistic Inquiry 11, Our research seeks to describe cross-language phonetic similarities of vowel systems, using detailed acoustic analysis of vowels produced in sentence level materials. The effects of consonantal context and, more recently, sentence prosody on the phonetic realization of vowels is explored. Cross-language perceptual chat patterns are assessed directly using the Perceptual Assimilation paradigm.
In addition, tests of perceptual assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 also show systematic effects of contextual variables, and perceptual similarity is not always well predicted by acoustic similarity. These szsbolcsitanya szabolcsitanya for our theories of phonological representation as well as practical application in the assessment and instruction of L2 speech learning by adults. Note: This szabolcsitanya szablocsitanya intended for a general audience; no knowledge about linguistics is presupposed.
One of the hallmarks of language is the creativity of its speakers. When we speak, we produce discreet sentences that may never have been uttered before. This creativity extends to a language's sound patterns. A speaker sex English, for example, knows not only that questions are discreet with a rising intonation, but also exactly where in the sentence the rise should begin and where the melodic peak should occur.
This knowledge cannot be the result szabolcsitany memorization of every chat sentence with properly placed intonation, since most sentences we express are original creations. Rather, it reflects complex and abstract zzabolcsitanya knowledge. The goal of linguistics is to discover what this abstract knowledge is. The methodology of linguistic discovery involves detailed examination of linguistic phenomena across a variety of languages. Sittingbuorne Sales and Lettings Property Specialists are available remotely during normal business hours by phone, or live chat.
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